Process Materials

Hot Rolled Steel

Steel that has been rolled at an extremely high temperature (typically over 1,700°F, which is above its recrystallization temperature). This makes it easier to form and shape the steel into larger sizes. Hot rolled steel is typically more economical because it is often manufactured without any delays in the process. As it cools off, hot rolled steel tends to shrink slightly, giving less control on the size and shape of the finished part when compared to cold rolled steel.

Cold Rolled Steel

Essentially hot rolled steel that has had further processing. Once hot rolled steel cools, it is processed in cold reduction mills and re-rolled at room temperature to achieve more exact dimensions and better surface qualities.

Stainless Steel

An alloy that contains a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass. It is notable for its corrosion resistance that increases with increasing chromium content. It comes in a variety of grades with varying chromium and molybdenum contents dependent on the environment the alloy must endure. It is ideal for many applications that require durability and corrosion resistance including surgical instruments, industrial equipment, major appliances.


A metallic alloy made of copper and zinc. The proportions of copper and zinc can vary to create alternative types of brass alloys with varying mechanical and electrical properties. It can also include small proportions of other elements including arsenic, lead, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and silicon. Brass is preferred for applications that require low friction such as locks, gears, bearings, casing and valves, electrical applications.


An alloy consisting primarily of copper and 12% tin, often with the addition of other metals including aluminum, manganese, nickel, or zinc. Sometimes it can also contain non-metals or metalloids, such as arsenic, phosphorus, or silicon that produce a range of alloys that include useful properties of stiffness, ductility, or machinability.


A soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys such as sterling silver, cupronickel, and constantan.

Spring Steel

A wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels feature a very high yield strength and generally include low-alloy manganese, medium-carbon steel, or high-carbon steel.

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel (HSLA)

A type of alloy steel with better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they are not made to meet a specific chemical composition but rather to specific mechanical properties. They have a carbon content between 0.05%-0.25% to retain formability and weldability. Other alloying elements include small quantities of manganese, copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium.